Effective Nuclear Charge
Understand the meaning of effective nuclear charge and how the effective nuclear charge depends upon nuclear charge and electron configuration.
Use the periodic table to predict the trends in atomic radii, ionic radii, ionization energy, and electron affinity.
Explain how the radius of an atom changes upon losing electrons to form a cation or gaining electrons to form an anion.
Explain how the ionization energy changes as we remove successive electrons. Recognize the jump in ionization energy that occurs when the ionization corresponds to removing a core electron.
Electron Configuration of Ions
Be able to write the electron configurations of ions.
Understand how irregularities in the periodic trends for electron affinity can be related to electron configuration.
CHAPTER 8 & 9: Chemical Bonding and Molecular Geometry
Read Sections 8.1 – 8.8 and Sections 9.1 – 9.8
Be able to understand how lattice energy is dependent upon the charge and size of ions.
Be able to recognize how lattice energy relates to physical properties such as melting point and boiling point.
Understand qualitatively how the radii of anions and cations differ from neutral atoms
Be able to draw Lewis dot structures
Bond Polarity and Electronegativity
Know the trends in electronegativity and use them to distinguish between polar covalent bonds and non-polar covalent bonds (This PhET tutorial shown in class should help with this concept: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/molecule-polarity)
Be able to assign formal charges to all of the atoms on a Lewis dot structure
Use formal charges to predict the most stable Lewis Structure
Understand the concept and meaning of resonance structures and identify molecules where the bonding is best represented by resonance structures
Exceptions to the Octet Rule
Know the exceptions to the octet rule and how to draw Lewis structures where the octet rule is violated
Strengths of Covalent Bonds
Know the relationship between bond enthalpy and bond length and be able to estimate the ΔH of a reaction given the bond enthalpies
Understand the relationship between bond order (single, double, triple bonds), bond length, and bond strength
THe VSEPR Model
Use the VSEPR model to predict molecular geometries and electron domain geometries of molecules (This PhET tutorial shown in class should help with this concept: http://phet.colorado.edu/en/simulation/molecule-shapes)
Be able to determine the number of bonding pairs and the number of lone pairs surrounding a central atom in a molecule
Understand the bond angle trends (deviations from the ideal bond angles) in molecules with unshared pairs or multiple bonds on the central atom
Molecular Shape and Polarity
Be able to identify polar and non-polar molecules
Be able to identify the hybridization on the central atom in a molecule
Know the similarities and differences between the sp, sp2, and sp3 hybrid orbitals particularly regarding how many π bonds can be formed on each central atom
Be familiar with the term resonance as it relates to the bonding in a molecule
Be able to determine the number of sigma and pi bonds in a molecule
Know the orbital character of single, double, and triple bonds
Be familiar with the terms resonance, delocalization, and π bonding
Be familiar with the relationship between potential energy and the distance between atoms
Know how orbital overlap between atomic orbitals relates to the energies of the molecular orbitals in a molecular orbital diagram
Be able to identify and distinguish between σ, σ*, π, and π* interactions in a molecule
Be able to use a molecular orbital diagram to determine the bond order in a molecule or ion
Be able to distinguish between the terms paramagnetic and diamagnetic
Be able to use a molecular orbital diagram to determine if a molecule is paramagnetic or diamagnetic