CHEM 1220 Exam #2 Study Guide

Chem 1220 Exam #2 Useful InformationThe second exam for this semester will cover Chapters 16 and 17. In order to study for the exam I would suggest the following:

•Print out the Chem 1220 Exam #2 useful Information that will be attached to the exam.

•Work through the graded homework problems from Mastering Chemistry
Re-work these problems so you are able to complete them on your own on the exam.

•Work through the lecture problems, which are posted on Carmen.
Re-work these problems so you are able to complete them on your own on the exam.

•Read the textbook sections listed below.
Reading the book before the exam is the best way to “cram” for the exam, especially for the conceptual questions.

•Use any other resources you have to understand the following learning objectives listed below:

Section 16.1
Acid-Base Equilibria
Define and identify acids and bases using the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis descriptions.

Section 16.2
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases and Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Identify conjugate acid-base pairs and relate the strength of an acid to the strength of its conjugate base.

Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Write the appropriate equilibrium constant and proton transfer reaction for acid-base reactions, and use this relationship to evaluate the strength of acids and bases.

Section 16.3
Acid-Base Relationships in Water and The Autoionization of Water
Describe the autoionization of water and calculate pH from the concentration ofhydronium ion or the concentration of hydroxide ion.

Section 16.4
The pH Scale
Use the pH scale to identify acidic and basic solutions. Identify pH ranges from the color of indicator solutions.

Section 16.5
pH of Strong Acids, Calculations involving Concentrations and pH of Strong Acids
Identify strong acids and bases. Calculate the pH of a strong acid or strong base from its empirical formula and concentration.

Section 16.6
Weak Acids
Identify weak acids and bases.

Calculating Ka from pH
Calculate the acid-dissociation constant for a weak acid or base-dissociation constant for a weak base given its concentration and the pH of the solution.

Percent Ionization
Calculate the percent ionization of a weak acid/base.

Using Ka to Calculate pH
Calculate the pH of a solution of a weak acid/base given its concentration and the appropriate dissoication constant.

Polyprotic Acids
Be able to analyze successive ionization constants and interpret titration curves of polyprotic acids.

Section 16.7
Weak Bases
Calculate Kb for a weak base given Ka of its conjugate acid.

Section 16.8
Relationship Between Ka and Kb
Calculate Ka for a weak acid given Kb of its conjugate base.

Laboratory #19: Analysis of a Solution of Two Acids

Section 16.9
Acid-Base Properties of Salt Solutions
Predict whether an aqueous solution of a salt will be acidic, basic or neutral and calculate the pH of salt solutions.

Section 16.10
Acid-Base Behavior and Chemical Structure
Be able to predict the relative strength of a series of acids based on chemical structure. For carboxylic acids, be able to identify how acid strength relates to the resonance stability associated with its conjugate base.

Section 16.11
Lewis Acids and Bases
Be able to define and identify Lewis Acids and Bases

Section 17.1
Common Ion Effect
Describe the common ion effect and use it to make qualitative predictions of how the presence of salts can alter pH or solubility equilibria.

Section 17.2
Buffer Solutions
Explain how a buffer functions and calculate the pH of a buffered solution, including its response to additions of acid or base.

Section 17.3
Acid-Base Titrations
Identify various types of acid-base titrations (strong acid-strong base, weak acid-strong base, weak base-strong acid, etc.) from their titration curves. Calculate the pH at any point in a titration, and determine the appropriate indicator for a given acid-base titration.

Laboratory #20: Acid-Base Titration Curves: Determining pKa

Section 17.4
Solubility Equilibria
Given either solubility-product constant, molar solubility or mass solubility for a substance calculate the other two quantities.

Laboratory #21: Determining a Solubility Product Constant

Section 17.5
Factors That Affect Solubility
Calculate molar solubility in the presence of a common ion. Predict the effect of pH on solubility of an ionic compound. Explain the effect of complex-ion formation and amphoterism on solubility.

Section 17.6
Solubility Equilibria
Use solubility-product constant and the reaction quotient to predict the concentration of ions needed to form a precipitate, and use such calculations to predict the order of precipitation and best separation in a solution containing multiple ions.

You are not responsible for Chapter 17.7 on the SP2013 exam.
Section 17.7
Factors That Affect Solubility
Interpret the results of qualitative analysis schemes to determine the identity of cations in a sample of unknown composition.

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