The following concepts are fair game for the second exam, which consists of a few review questions from Chapters 3 and 4 (be sure to know how to do titration problems) and Chapters 5-6.

**Section 5.2-5.3**

**Heat and Change in Enthalpy**

Express the relationships among the quantities heat and change in ethalpy. Learn their sign conventions, including how the signs of heat and change in enthalpy relate to whether a process is exothermic or endothermic.

**Section 5.2**

**The First Law of Thermodynamics**

State the first law of thermodynamics and understand how it is applied in chemical reactions.

**Section 5.2**

**State Functions**

Understand the concept of a state function and be able to give examples of quantities that are and are not state functions.

**Section 5.4**

**Stoichiometry of Thermochemical Reactions**

Use thermochemical equations to relate the change in enthalpy to the amount of substance involved in the reaction.

**Section 5.5**

**Calorimetry**

Relate temperature measurements and heat transferred by using heat capacities or specific heats.

**Section 5.6**

**Hess’s Law**

Use Hess’s law to determine enthalpy changes for chemical reactions.

**Experiment #6: Calorimetry and Hess’s Law**

**Section 5.7**

**Standard Enthalpy of Formation**

Use standard enthalpies of formation to calculate the standard enthalpy change for reactions.

**Section 6.1**

**Photon Energy**

Explain what photons are, and be able to calculate their energies given either their frequency or wavelength. Calculate the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation given its frequency or its frequency given its wavelength. Order the common kinds of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum according to their wavelengths or energy.

**Section 6.2**

**Quantized Energy and Photons**

Use quantum theory to understand that energy is quantized and to explain the photoelectric effect.

**Section 6.3**

**The Bohr Hydrogen Atom**

Using the Bohr theory, explain how line spectra relate to the idea of quantized energy states of electrons in atoms. Be able to identify the limitations of the Bohr Model.

**Experiment #7: Emission of Light and Atomic Models**

**Section 6.5**

**Quantum Numbers**

Relate the quantum numbers to the number and type of orbitals, and recognize the different orbital shapes.

**Section 6.6**

**Atomic Orbitals**

Interpret radial probability function graphs for the orbitals. Draw an energy-level diagram for the orbitals in a many-electron atom, and describe how electrons populate the orbitals in the ground-state of an atom, using the Pauli Exclusion Principle and Hund’s rule.

**Section 6.7-6.9**

**Electron Configuration/Orbital Block Notation**

Use the periodic table to write condensed electron configurations and determine the number of unpaired electrons in an atom.