CHEM 1220 Exam #1 Study Guide

The first exam for this semester will cover Chapters 13, 14, 15, and 16.1-16.5. In order to study for the exam I would suggest the following:

•Print out the Chem 1220 Exam #1 useful Information that will be attached to the exam.

•Work through the graded homework problems from Mastering Chemistry
Re-work these problems so you are able to complete them on your own on the exam.

•Work through the lecture problems, which are posted on Carmen.
Re-work these problems so you are able to complete them on your own on the exam.

•Read the textbook sections listed below.
Reading the book before the exam is the best way to “cram” for the exam, especially for the conceptual questions.

•Use any other resources you have to understand the following learning objectives listed below:

Section 13.1
Properties of Solutions, The Solution Process, Energetics of Solution Formation, and Dissolution of NaCl in Water
Describe how enthalpy and entropy changes affect solution formation. Be able to interpret Figures 13.3 and 13.4 and determine how the change in enthalpy of the solvent, solute, and mixture influence whether the solution process is endothermic or exothermic.

Section 13.2
Saturated Solutions and Solubility
Describe the role of equilibria in the solution process and its relationship to the solubility of a solute.

Section 13.3
Factors Affecting Solubility, Miscibility
Describe the relationship between intermolecular forces and solubility, including use of the “like dissolves like” rule.

Pressure Effects on Gas Solubility and Henry’s Law
Describe the relationship between the partial pressure of a gas and its solubility.

Lab #14: Variation of Solubility with Temperature and Solvent

Section 13.4
Expressing Solution Concentration and Units of Concentration
Calculate the concentration of a solution in terms of molarity, molality, mole fraction, percent composition, and parts per million and be able to interconvert between them.

Section 13.5
Colligative Properties
Describe what a colligative property is and explain the difference between the effects of nonelectrolytes and electrolytes on colligative properties.

Boiling Point Elevation and Freezing Point Depression, Vapor Pressure Lowering, Osmosis and Osmotic Pressure, and Molar Mass from Colligative Properties
Be able to calculate the vapor pressure of a solvent over a solution, the boiling point elevation and freezing point depression of a solution, and the osmotic pressure of a solution. Also be able to use these colligative properties to determine molar mass.

Lab #15: Freezing Point Depression

Section 14.1
Factors That Affect Reaction Rates
Understand the factors that affect the rate of chemical reactions.

Section 14.2
Reaction Rates and Reaction Rates and Stoichiometry
Determine the rate of a reaction given time and concentration.

Section 14.3
Concentration and the Rate Law
Relate the rate of formation of products and the rate of disappearance of reactants given the balanced chemical equation for the reaction.

Using Spectroscopic Methods to Measure Rates
Given Beer’s law, be able to calculate concentration in order to determine the rate.

Section 14.4
Change in Concentration with Time
Understand the form and meaning of a rate law including the ideas of reaction order and rate constant.

1st and 2nd Order Integrated Rate Law, and Half Life for 1st and 2nd order Reactions.
Determine the rate law and rate constant for a reaction from a series of experiments given the measured rates for various concentrations of reactants. Use the integrated form of a rate law to determine the concentration of a reactant at a given time and to determine the half life and/or rate constant.

Lab #16: Determining a Rate Law and Rate Constant

Section 14.5
Temperature and Rate, The Collision Model , The Orientation Factor, Transition State Theory, The Arrhenius Equation, and Activation Energy
Explain how the activation energy affects a rate and be able to use the Arrhenius equation.

Lab #17: Variation of Reaction Rate with Temperature

Section 14.6
Reaction Mechanisms, Proposing a Reaction Mechanism, and Mechanisms and Molecularity
Predict a rate law for a reaction having a multistep mechanism given the individual steps in the mechanism.

Section 14.7
Explain how a catalyst works and be able to distinguish between a catalyst and an intermediate.

Section 15.1
The Concept of Chemical Equilibrium and Visual Representation of Equilibrium
Understand what is meant by chemical equilibrium and how it relates to reaction rates. Be able to visualize dynamic equilibrium a tthe atomic level.

Section 15.2
The Equilibrium Constant
Write the equilibrium-constant expression for any reaction.

Equilibrium Expressions Involving Gases
Relate the equilibrium constant expressed using molar concentrations to that using presssures.

Section 15.3-15.5
Magnitude of Equilibrium Constants
Relate the magnitude of an equilibrium constant to the relative amounts of reactants and products present in an equilibrium mixture.

Determining Equilibrium Constants from Experimental Data and Combining Equilibrium Constants
Manipulate the equilibrium constant to reflect changes in the chemical equation and be able to calculate the equilibrium constant from concentration measurements.

Heterogeneous Reactions
Write the equilibrium-constant expression for a heterogeneous reaction.

Linking Equilibrium and Kinetics

Section 15.6
The Reaction Quotient Q
Predict the direction of a reaction given the equilibrium constant and the concentrations of reactants and products.

Fundamentals of Equilibrium Concentration Calculations
Calculate equilibrium concentrations given the equilibrium constant and all but one equilibrium concentration and Calculate equilibrium concentrations, given the equilibrium constant and the starting concentrations.

Section 15.7
Le Chatlier’s Principle and Disturbing Equilibrium: The Effect of Changing Concentration on Equilibrium, The Effect of Pressure Changes on Equilibrium, The Effect of an Inert Gas, Temperature, and Catalysis on Equilibrium
Understand how changing the concentrations, volume, or temperature of a system at equilibrium affects the equilibrium position.

Lab #18: Equilibrium and Le Chatelier’s Principle

Section 16.1
Acid-Base Equilibria
Define and identify acids and bases using the Arrhenius, Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis descriptions.

Section 16.2
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases and Conjugate Acid-Base Pairs
Identify conjugate acid-base pairs and relate the strength of an acid to the strength of its conjugate base.

Relative Strengths of Acids and Bases
Write the appropriate equilibrium constant and proton transfer reaction for acid-base reactions, and use this relationship to evaluate the strength of acids and bases.

Section 16.3
Acid-Base Relationships in Water and The Autoionization of Water
Describe the autoionization of water and calculate pH from the concentration ofhydronium ion or the concentration of hydroxide ion.

Section 16.4
The pH Scale
Use the pH scale to identify acidic and basic solutions. Identify pH ranges from the color of indicator solutions.

Section 16.5
pH of Strong Acids, Calculations involving Concentrations and pH of Strong Acids
Identify strong acids and bases. Calculate the pH of a strong acid or strong base from its empirical formula and concentration.

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